Letters on a wide range of subject matter that do not pertain
directly to this website. All those other letters that do pertain to this
site are kept personal and are not posted unless under special circumstances.
A collection of authors contained in this site
The Age of the Earth
One of the most vital forms of data, is the age of the earth. Evolution relies
on it heavily as well as Creationism. How does one go about measuring how old
the earth is? There are several measuring techniques, one of which is examining
sedimentary rock. The rock is made up of water depositing layers of solid
material on the earth's surface as heavier elements drop to the bottom. There
are only two ways these types of rocks can be formed. The first is a small
amount of water depositing layers of dirt and sand over a long period of time.
The second is a vast amount of water making the deposits, but only in a short
period of time.
The process in which we see today occur very slowly, as small amounts of water
deposits of dirt and sand in tiny quantities. Some scientists presume it has
always been like this way. The hypothesis claims sedimentation always occurs at
a constant rate, this is known as, "uniformitarianism". Now if this hypothesis
is correct, then layers of rock would indeed taken a longer time to form, much
longer in fact. However, experiments, and observations also tells us that
sedimentation and sedimentary rock can form very rapidly. Mount St. Helens
eruption caused a finely layered sediment around it's base in just six hours!
Furthermore, experiments by Scientists shows that differently sized particles
within sediment can quickly sort themselves into layers like we see found in
rock today. So yes, there is another possible explanation for thick
sedimentary rock, and that explanation is a catastrophic event like a worldwide
Fossil Development in Sedimentary Rock
We find in most sedimentary rock, are fossils. When a plant or animal dies, it
quickly decays. After a few weeks, often times a little of the remains of the
creature is left. Within a few months, even the bones of larger animals
disintegrate. For a fossil to form it needs to be buried very quickly by mud,
volcanic dust, and so on. Otherwise what happens is, the creature would
decompose into the dust of the earth, or be eaten by worms or other predators.
The only way to explain the presence of fossils in the rocks is for these
animals or plants to be buried very quickly.
The evidence of fish giving birth while being fossilized, or fish in the act of
swallowing another fish while being fossilized. Most striking is a fossilized
tree truck oriented vertically. It extends through several layers of sedimentary
rock. If it would have taken million of years to form, the to of the tree would
have been decomposed long before it would have been encased in the rock. These
are just a few example of the wide range that a person can draw from.
Dr. Bert Thompson of Texas A&M who is a microbiologist points out, "Vast animal
graveyard and fossiliferous rubble have been found worldwide. Evidence of a
great, sudden, and recent water cataclysm, followed by a deep freeze across the
entire great north, accompanied by titanic hydraulic forces and crustal
upheavals, burying a host of mammoths, mastodons, elephants, and other
vegetation has been documented. Worldwide fossilization has occurred in vast
quantities, including fossils in sedimentary strata, often at great depths and
under great pressure. Vast and numerous rifts, fissures, and lava beds have been
discovered, scarring the world ocean floor, all clearly recent and speak of some
gigantic submarine upheaval of the earth's crust (as in breaking up of the
"fountains of the deep). Marine fossils have been found buried and exposed at
almost every altitude..."
Evidence of a worldwide flood can be found all over the world. Marine
crustaceans have been discovered on 12,000 foot high mountaintops.
Hippopotamuses, living only in Africa, have been uncovered in England. Hundreds
of dinosaurs have been found buried together with other creatures that didn't
share the same habitat. Norfolk forest-bed in England is a good example of this.
There they found a variety of cold climate animal fossils as well as tropical
warm climate animals, and temperate zone plants mixed together.
Sea creatures have been found on all mountain tops of the world. Pillow lava is
formed underwater only. The question is, how did all these creatures get
scattered abroad while being fossilized, thousands upon thousands of miles away
from their natural environment? The only viable explanation is a worldwide
flood. What's more, geologist have found a field of pillow lava as high as
15,000 feet on Mount Ararat!
The account of a worldwide flood found in the Bible is hardly alone. Researchers
have described over 100 flood traditions from Europe to Asia, Australia, the
East Indies, the Americas, East Africa, and many other places. Almost all
accounts agree on these points...
Universal, worldwide flood
seed of mankind survived to perpetuate the human race.
Derek Ager and Polystrate fossils
Trees have been found in the fossil record which
has been great observational find that shows the earth is not as old as
evolutionists claim. The trees have been found over numerous layers thus
giving the name "polystrate fossil". These type of fossils cannot made gradually
over a long period of time. Geologist Derek Ager who is not a creationist, in
fact often times he has been critical of it, he states in his book concerning
polystrate fossils...‘Alternatively, if
a 10 m tree were buried in 10 years, that would mean 1000 km in a million years
or 10 000 km in 10 million years (i.e. the duration of the coal measures). This
is equally ridiculous and we cannot escape the conclusion that sedimentation was
at times very rapid
indeed and at other times there were long breaks in sedimentation,
though it looks both uniform and continuous’
Polystrate fossils provide great
observational evidence that the rocks formed rapidly, consistent with a young
creation, confirming what the Bible has basically said all along.
Petrified Wood Rapidly Formed
One of the most popular ways to date the earth is radiometric or carbon 14, as
it's commonly known as. Dr. Willard F. Libby invented the carbon 14 method, and
developed it in the late 1940s and early 1950s. How reliable is carbon 14
dating? In Dr. Libby's own book, he states that carbon 14 dating is only
accurate to about 4,000 years. After that amount of time, the system becomes
The limitation of carbon 14 hasn't stopped some scientists from using it to date
rocks that encase fossils and many other "ancient" objects. The carbon 14 dating
method is based on three assumptions, the first one being, we know the quantity
of the radioactive material which were in the rock when it was first formed.
Secondly, the rate of radioactive decay must be constant over time. And thirdly,
the rocks are insulated from outside factors. Quite frankly, it's impossible to
determine for sure the quantity of radioactive elements when it was first
formed. We can only guess there was no daughter element present.
We do know however that a recently made lava rock does contain a daughter
element. The strongest argument that suggests carbon 14 dating might be accurate
over 4,000 years, is the rate of decay being constant. Although its been only
under observation for about a 100 years, evidence suggests that radioactive
decay is not affected by heat or pressure. Although some experts dispute the
rate being constant over time. Nuclear physicist Dr. Russell who has done
research suggests radioactive decay may have been faster in the past. Dr.
Kenneth L. Currie of the Canadian Geological Survey notes that radioactive decay
might not be contant:"Natural processes in general do not act at fixed rates.
The assumption that an average rate taken over a long period of time can be
extrapolated is generally unsatisfactory."
The third assumption is most likely the most damaging one when it comes to
reliable measurements of the age of the earth. For example, a fossilized wood
from Upper Permian was found, and it had carbon 14 present. The date assigned to
these rock layers was 250,000,000. Yet, other research reveals that all of the
carbon 14 should have been disintegrated if the wood was older than 50,000 years
Another example was the newly formed rocks from Mount Ngauruhoe volcano in New
Zealand. The examination of these rocks by carbon 14, claimed these rocks were
270,000 to 3,500,000 years old. However, the rocks were formed during the
eruptions between 1949-1975.
Given inaccuracies by Carbon 14, dating no wonder many scientists question the
reliability of the method.
There are many other methods which have been used to determine how old the earth
is, and they are; Magnetic field intensity which dates the earth 10,000 years
old. Concentration of ocean salt. This method showed the oceans are not salty
enough to be billions of years old. Preserved red blood cells. This has been
found in un fossilized dinosaur bones. Evolutions claimed it was 65 million
years old, however research has shown the red blood cells couldn't have lasted
that long. Topsoil Depth. There is usually 7 to 8 inches of topsoil that
sustains all of the life on earth while beneath the topsoil, it's dead as rock.
Scientists have told us it takes plants bacterial decay, and erosion to form 6
inches of topsoil in 5,000 to 20,000 years. If the earth is 5 billion years old
we should have alot more inches of topsoil.
Non-fossilized and Carved Pictures of Ancient Dinosaurs Give Evidence of a
have been made with fossils of dinosaurs. For example, north-eastern
China revealed psittacosaurs displaying communal parenting. Apparently a young
psittacosaurs was buried with an adult. National Geographic a promoter of
evolution said it didn't know what buried them so quickly and made a few guesses
why. One reason they said was flooding and named a few other explanations.
Anyway, as far as non-fossilized dinosaurs are concerned, there were
discoveries of red blood cells and hemoglobin in their
bones. Science research has shown that such cells could not survive 65 million years ago
as Evolutions claimed these large animals were living. Rather, the cells could
only survive a few thousand years which in line with a young earth. Another
example was found in cave paintings located in the Gorozomzi Hills 25 miles from
Salisbury in Africa. The paintings were pictures of brontosaurus (one 67 feet
high and the other 30 feet high). Evolutionists claim this creature was
extinct millions of years before man appeared on earth. Yet the man who painted
the dinosaurs lived in 1500 B.C. A Bushman which is what this person was know
as; always made paintings from the life around him. Another surprising discovery
from the Gorozomzi Hills was a rock painting of a "dancing bear."
Why was this surprising? As far as scientists know, bears never lived in Africa.
In the Khmer civilization there is a Buddhist
temple deep in the jungle. The above picture shows in part what's on the temple.
Yep, it's a depiction of a dinosaur. Since there
were no museums, internet, telegraph, or pictures 800 years ago of dinosaurs which is when the temple
was built, one can only assume these creatures were living with man which again
indicates a young earth that is thousands of years old and not millions of years
old. There are many other animals carved out on this particular temple like
monkeys, lizards, water buffalo, and birds. The ancient civilization was
basically depicting their animal environment around them in honor of their pagan